Download e-book for iPad: Aladdin's Lamp: How Greek Science Came to Europe Through the by John Freely

By John Freely

ISBN-10: 0307277836

ISBN-13: 9780307277831

Aladdin’s Lamp is the interesting tale of ways historic Greek philosophy and technological know-how begun within the 6th century B.C. and, through the subsequent millennium, unfold around the Greco-Roman global, generating the striking discoveries and theories of Thales, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes, Galen, Ptolemy, etc. John Freely explains how, because the darkish a while shrouded Europe, students in medieval Baghdad translated the works of those Greek thinkers into Arabic, spreading their principles through the Islamic international from critical Asia to Spain, with many Muslim scientists, such a lot significantly Avicenna, Alhazen, and Averroës, including their very own interpretations to the philosophy and technology that they had inherited. Freely is going directly to exhibit how, starting within the 12th century, those texts through Islamic students have been then translated from Arabic into Latin, sparking the emergence of recent technology on the sunrise of the Renaissance, which climaxed within the clinical Revolution of the 17th century.

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Broadly speaking, Saudi citizens can be divided into tribal members and townspeople. In popular perception, Saudi Arabia's tribal identity is strongest in Najd, but important tribes range over the entire country. The badu (bedouin) tribes ofNajd have long been a major element of Al Sa'ud power, providing the backbone of the Saudi armies which forged the modern state. Because ofthe A1 Sa'ud's origins in Najd, the tribes and their shaykhs (tribal leaders) continue to receive close attention. Najdi tribesmen dominate the National Guard, which serves as a counterweight to the Royal Saudi Army and owes its loyalty directly to the royal family.

Although the Lranian Revolution of 1979 produced a barrage ofverbal assaults on the A1 Sa'ud, the direct impact was limited to antigovernment demonstrations among the Shi'ah population of the Eastern Province in 1979 and 1980. But as Baghdad's initial successes in the Iran-Iraq War (1 980-1 988) were checkmated and reversed, the possibility of a direct threat from Iran grew. In 198 1, Saudi Arabia and its smaller neighbors in the Gulf (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman) banded together in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

Iraq's President Saddam Husayn, enraged over Kuwaiti Introduction 10 intransigence on oil matters and the amirate's refusal to discuss conflicting border claims, ordered his armed forces to invade his smaller neighbor on 2 August 1990. King Fahd invited the United States and other Western powers, in combination with Saudi and other Arab forces (particularly those of Egypt and Syria) to use the kingdom as a platform from which to liberate Kuwait. Following months of preparation ("Operation Desert Shield"), the war against Iraq ("Operation Desert Storm") began in January 199 1 with an intensive aerial assault.

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Aladdin's Lamp: How Greek Science Came to Europe Through the Islamic World by John Freely

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