By Helga Nowotny
The invention of high-temperature superconductivity used to be hailed as an important medical leap forward, inducing an unparalleled wave of pleasure and expectation one of the medical neighborhood and within the overseas press. This e-book units this learn leap forward in context, and reconstructs the background of the invention. The authors learn the emergence of this new learn box and how its improvement used to be formed by means of scientists and technological know-how coverage makers. in addition they study some of the institutional and nationwide settings within which the examine was once undertaken in addition to contemplating the clinical backgrounds and motivations of researchers who entered the sector following the unique discovery.
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Extra info for After the breakthrough: The emergence of high-temperature superconductivity
Since the reduction in amplitude of the wave in the medium depends directly on the distance travelled in the medium, the loci of points of equal amplitude will be planes parallel to the surface ofseparation. THIN FILM OPTICS Only for the case of normal incidence are the planes of equal phase parallel to those of equal amplitude. Thus, if we consider a wave of circular frequency w travelling in the direction (1,p, v ) in a transparent medium of refractive index n, the electric vector may be written where c is the velocity of light in vacuum.
The results show clearly the profound effect on film formation of amounts of adsorbed cadmium corresponding to 4 . 0 0 1 molecular layer. In view of the observed ranges of atoms in surface motion experiments the above results are not surprising. The effective range on the surface over which a nucleus may collect migrating atoms is such as to cover a very large number of atoms. F. M. F O L E Y ~ ~ examined deposits of cadmium a few atoms thick and found nuclei in the deposits surrounded by circular regions free from deposit, showing that migration into the nucleus had taken place.
E. N. DA C. ANDRADE and sputtered cadmium (K. I. ROULSTON J. G . MARTIN DALE^ examined the effect of heating on films of silver and gold deposited on amorphous substrates by sputtering and were able to observe the growth of crystallites in the films by optical microscopy. 1 being obtained. These THE STRUCTURE OF SOLID FILMS patterns are characteristic of spherulitic aggregates of uniaxial crystallites. It is suggested that the crystallites take the form of long needle-like crystals of the order ten atoms across and that anisotropy arises from the limitation in extension normal to the needle axis.
After the breakthrough: The emergence of high-temperature superconductivity by Helga Nowotny